• India
  • Oct 12

Explainer / National Human Rights Commission

Prime Minister Narendra Modi addressed the 28th foundation day of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) on October 12.

Key points on NHRC:

• The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) was established on October 12, 1993. 

• The statute under which it is established is the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993, as amended by the Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Act, 2006.

• It is in conformity with the Paris Principles, adopted at the first international workshop on national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights held in Paris in October 1991, and endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations by its Regulations 48/134 of December, 20, 1993.

• The NHRC takes cognisance of human rights violations, conducts enquiries and recommends compensation to victims from public authorities besides other remedial and legal measures against the erring public servants.

• The commission consists of a chairperson, five full-time members and four deemed members. The statute lays down qualifications for the appointment of the chairperson and members of the commission.

• The NHRC is an embodiment of India’s concern for the promotion and protection of human rights.

• Section 2(1)(d) of the PHRA defines human rights as the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in India.

• The Commission is responsible for spreading human rights awareness amongst the masses and encouraging the efforts of all stakeholders in the field of human rights literacy.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

• The Universal Declaration of Human Rights articulates fundamental rights and freedoms for all.

• The Universal Declaration was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 10, 1948. 

• Following the World Wars, the Universal Declaration was the first time that countries agreed on a comprehensive statement of inalienable human rights.

• It consists of 30 articles which have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions and laws.

• The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is the most translated document in the world.

• Human Rights Day is observed every year on December 10.

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