• India
  • Mar 04

Explainer - Major peace agreements in northeast region

• A tripartite agreement was signed in presence of Union Home Minister Amit Shah, between the Union government, government of Tripura and The Indigenous Progressive Regional Alliance (TIPRA), popularly known as Tipra Motha and other stakeholders, in New Delhi on March 2.

• Under the pact, it was agreed to amicably resolve all issues of the indigenous people of Tripura related to history, land and political rights, economic development, identity, culture and language.

• Tripura Chief Minister Manik Shah was also present on the occasion.

• As part of the agreement, it was agreed to constitute a Joint Working Group or Committee to work out and implement the mutually agreed points on all agreed issues in a time-bound manner to ensure an honourable solution.

• Tipra Motha supremo Pradyot Debbarma was on a ‘fast-unto-death’ to demand a permanent solution to the problems of the indigenous people.

• Following assurance of the interlocutors of the central government, he came to the national capital and agreed for the pact.

• In order to maintain a conducive atmosphere for implementation of the pact, all stakeholders shall refrain from resorting to any form of protest or agitation, starting from the day of signing of the agreement.

Major peace pacts in the northeast region

• India’s northeast region stretches from the foothills of the Himalayas in the eastern range and is surrounded by countries like Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Nepal and Myanmar. 

• It includes Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim. 

• The region is rich in natural resources, covered with dense forests, has the highest rainfall in the country, with large and small river systems nesting the land and is a treasure house of flora and fauna.

• The quest for ethnic and regional identity, nationalism, and ideological motivations have fomented a climate of insurgency in several parts of the Northeast Region, which has led to political fragmentation of the region.

• Insurgency has taken a heavy toll on economic progress in the region. 

• The Union government has shown its willingness to enter into dialogue with any group, which is willing to abjure the path of violence and place its demand within the framework of the Constitution of India. 

• Pursuant to the above policy of the government, a number of outfits have come for talks with the government for resolution to their grievances and a number of cadres of insurgents have surrendered with weapons.

• In the last five years, many peace and border-related agreements have been signed with several insurgent groups and among different states in the northeast.

Peace accords:

1) NLFT Tripura Agreement 

• An agreement was signed on August 10, 2019 by the Centre, Tripura government and National Liberation Front of Twipra led by Sabir Kumar Debbarma (NLFT-SD).

• NLFT has been banned under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act since 1997 and has been involved in violence, operating from their camps across the international border. 

• Under the agreement, a provision of a special economic development package of Rs 100 crore was made for the development of tribal areas.

2) Bru Agreement 

• Bru, also known as Reang, is a community living mostly in Tripura, Mizoram and Assam. Reangs are the second largest tribal community of Tripura. They are recognised as one of the 75 primitive tribes in India. Their language is known as Kau Bru.

• In 1997, following ethnic tension, as many as 5,000 families comprising around 30,000 Bru-Reang tribals were forced to flee Mizoram and seek shelter in Tripura. These people were housed in temporary camps at Kanchanpur in North Tripura.

• An agreement was signed on January 16, 2020 by the Centre, governments Tripura and Mizoram along with representatives of Bru migrants for the permanent settlement of 6,959 Bru families (37,136 persons) in Tripura with a financial package of about Rs 661 crore.

• As per the agreement, each resettled Bru family would be given financial assistance in the form of a fixed deposit of Rs 4 lakh, free ration, Rs 5,000 per month for two years, housing assistance at the rate of Rs 1.5 lakh, and a land plot of 30x40 square feet.

3) Bodo Peace Accord

• The Centre signed an agreement with the Assam government and factions of the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB), All Bodo Students Union, etc on January 27, 2020 to resolve the long-pending Bodo issue.  

• The All Bodo Students’ Union (ABSU), which has been spearheading a movement for a Bodoland state since 1972, and another group called the United Bodo People’s Organisation were also signatories to the accord.

• A special development package of Rs 1,500 crore was provisioned. 

• After the signing of the agreement, 1,615 cadres of NDFB groups surrendered their weapons

• The agreement seeks to increase the scope and power of Bodoland Territorial Council and to streamline its functioning.

4) Karbi Anglong Agreement

• To end the decades-old crisis in the Karbi Anglong region of Assam, an MoU was signed on September 4, 2021 between the Centre, the Assam government and representatives of Karbi groups (KLNLF, PDCK, UPLA, KPLT). 

• As a result of this agreement, more than 1,000 armed cadres renounced violence and joined the mainstream of society.

• As per the agreement, a special development package of Rs 1,000 crore will be given over five years by the central government and the Assam government to take up special development projects in the Karbi areas.

• This agreement will ensure the protection of the culture, identity, language, etc of the Karbi people and all round development of the region.

5) Adivasi Peace Accord

• A Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) was signed on September 15, 2022 with representatives of eight Adivasi Groups to end the decades old crisis of Adivasis and tea garden workers in Assam, following which 1,182 cadres of Adivasi groups have joined the mainstream by laying down arms.

• The agreement provides for rehabilitation and re-settlement of armed cadres and measures for welfare of the tea garden workers. 

• A special development package of Rs 1,000 crore will be provided over a period of five years for development of infrastructure in Adivasi inhabited villages/areas.

6)  Dimasa National Liberation Army (DNLA) Peace Agreement

• A Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) was signed on April 27, 2023 with Dimasa National Liberation Army/ Dimasa Peoples’ Supreme Council (DNLA/DPSC) of Assam to end the insurgency in Dima Hasao district of

• Assam, following which 181 cadres of DNLA have joined the mainstream by laying down their arms on October 28, 2023.

7) UNLF Peace Agreement

• The Union government and the government of Manipur signed a peace agreement with the oldest armed group in Manipur, the United National Liberation Front (UNLF), in New Delhi on November 29, 2023.

• The UNLF was formed in 1964 and was operating from both within and outside Indian territory. 

• As per agreement, UNLF has agreed to return to the mainstream by abjuring violence and agreeing to honour the Constitution of India and laws of the land.

• A peace monitoring committee will be constituted to oversee enforcement of the agreed ground rules.

8) ULFA Peace Agreement

• A Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) was signed on December 29, 2023 with ULFA.

• The United Liberation Front of Asom (ULFA), the oldest insurgent group of Assam, agreed to abjure violence, surrender arms, disband the organisation, vacate their camps and join the democratic process.

• The ULFA was formed in 1979 with the demand for a “sovereign Assam”. Since then, it has been involved in subversive activities that led to the central government declaring it a banned outfit in 1990.

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